What Is the Difference Between a Thesis and a Dissertation

As it is, most people even students cannot clearly state the difference between a Ph.D. dissertation and a thesis. This is not necessarily because they do not understand the terms, but rather because they are normally used interchangeably.

It is difficult to point out distinctive differences between the two terms unless we use a specific context like an individual university. The reason being, while one college may use them interchangeably, another one will define them apart.

Difference Between Thesis and Dissertation

That said, the following are some of the differences between a thesis and a dissertation.


Generally, the length of an academic paper will mostly depend on the course being taken or the specifications of the instructor. However, even with all these discrepancies, most theses are usually shorter than dissertations.

To complete a thesis, a master’s student will only need one semester and this is the only project they undertake. On the other hand, the doctoral candidate takes several years to research and put together a dissertation. Some dissertations my even go up to four hundred pages depending on the specific program of study.


Even though the structures of theses and dissertations do not vary by a major margin, there are a few differences that can be observed. For instance, a thesis statement will only give a brief explanation of how an argument will be proven.

In contrast, a dissertation statement should have a clearly stated hypothesis that should be justified by the end of the project.

thesis or dissertation

Nature of Research

A student doing their dissertation will be required to research extensively and get materials from many external sources. They are expected to be original even in the ideas they present and the matters they research about.

This explains why they also take longer periods of time to complete compared to theses. In contrast, thesis research does not have to be that involving.

Students use existing materials and refer to previous research projects to build on theirs. This helps in exhausting previous research projects with regard to the given suggestions.


For both a thesis and a dissertation, the student is required to master the content and make an oral presentation to defend their project. However, the difference comes in the time required to defend each. A thesis defense can be done in just an hour while a dissertation defense may take several hours

Follow Up

In the case of a thesis, most students do not care what becomes of their project as long as they get a good grade out of it.

On the other hand, a doctoral student will research even more to develop and become an expert in the area they handled during their dissertation. A dissertation is done with the future in mind so that one can build on the findings.

Bottom Line

Even though the terms dissertation and thesis are often used interchangeably, the factors discussed here can be used to distinguish them. If you seek thesis writing help then you have an idea of how long it should take to have it done.
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How to Avoid the Most Common Financial Scams

Disclaimer: This post is sponsored by PSECU, a Pennsylvania-based credit union.
Since the invention of money, shady shysters have sought to line their own pocketbooks off the blood, sweat and tears of others. Although no one wants to consider themselves a sucker, scammers continue to bilk people out of millions of dollars annually.

Most Common Financial Scams
Source: Pixabay
Those seeking to defraud others prey on the good nature most people possess, as well as the emotions everyone experiences. Modern technology allows thieves new avenues for ripping off those caught unawares. However, those who educate themselves on common scam techniques can avoid falling victim.
Check, Please! 
In these uncertain financial times, who doesn't fantasize about receiving an unexpected check in the mail, a lucrative work-from-home position or both? Scammers attack the economically vulnerable, since they know poverty persuades many to believe an easier path to prosperity must exist.
Check-cashing scams often stem from legitimate employment searches. Cybercrooks target job-seekers with opportunities for easy income by processing checks for their overseas clientele. 
The thieves mail victims a realistic-looking check with instructions to cash it, return a certain amount via money-wiring services and keep the rest as their "salary."
Often, the checks appear so realistic, even banks don't catch the fraud until after the victim has spent their so-called wages. Victims then face hefty overcharge fees for all money cleared after depositing the fake check, and may face criminal conspiracy charges in extreme repeat cases. 
Avoiding this scam proves simple: Never cash checks from an unverified source and never wire funds back to the initial sender.

We Need You 

Most people possess generous spirits, and natural disasters prompt many to open their wallets to their charity of choice. However, those receiving solicitations for donations via phone, email or social media messages should hesitate before whipping out their credit card.
To avoid charity scams, only donate to well-known organizations. If contacted by phone by someone soliciting aid, inform the caller that a donation will be made through the charity's website.

Illegal Access 

Ironically, many online scammers trick victims into revealing their passwords and other important information, like credit card numbers, under the guise of needing to verify their identity due to a breach of their account.

Never provide email passwords, Social Security numbers or credit card information via email or to unsolicited phone callers.
When an email indicates a data breach, research online to see if others have experienced the same thing. Refrain from posting chain-letter breach scams on social media. Those silly "I got a friend request from myself" messenger threads only annoy those who recognize the hoax, so don't pass on any warnings not covered in the news.

I, Robocall 

Every day, millions of Americans pick up the phone, say hello - and meet with a robotic voice urging them not to hang up before learning how to cut credit card bills by two-thirds, qualify for student loan forgiveness or enjoy an all-expenses-paid cruise.
The best rule of thumb for dealing with robocalls? Simply hang up. Go even further by registering with the Federal Do-Not-Call list and reporting unwanted phone solicitations. The volume of calls may not decrease immediately, but multiple reports aid prosecutors in holding those responsible accountable.

Wire Me the Money

Wiring money to anyone but well-known family members overseas generally spells trouble. Wiring funds to unknown individuals means waving goodbye to cash that will likely never be recovered.
Exercise caution when an online merchant only accepts payment via wire, as legitimate vendors offer ways to pay that don't include a visit to Western Union. Bank wire scams often target those seeking to purchase prescription medications without a scrip from a doctor, especially in the U.S., where many lack health insurance and sufficient funds to visit a physician for regular med checkups.

The Tax Man Calls 

CPAs and enrolled agents advise their clients that taxing authorities initiate contact via U.S. mail, not phone or email, when sending correspondence. However, savvy scammers imitate IRS agents so well, thousands get suckered into paying nonexistent liabilities with gift cards.

Understand that all taxing authorities must follow certain rules of procedure when attempting to collect tax debt. The IRS website expressly informs taxpayers that the first step they take when collecting debt involves sending a snail-mail letter to the debtor's last known address.
Hang up on calls from people claiming to be tax collectors and contact the appropriate entity directly to determine if liability exists. Report repeated calls from the same number to the FCC or local law enforcement, who will aid in filing charges, if possible.

Stay Savvy and Safe

Criminals who fail at their pilfering schemes eventually give up and move on. Still, even when authorities apprehend one fraudster, others wait to take their place.

By ignoring unsolicited phone calls and emails and by verifying any amounts won or owed directly with the responsible institution, everyone can help prevent others from losing their shirts in shady scams.
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How to Recover Deleted/Disappeared Notes on Mac

There are times when you want to save any document or your file but you are unable to do so. And then there are times when your file disappears automatically or by human error.

You must be looking for ways to restore and recover it. There are easy ways to recover any lost/deleted file but with Macbook, your task gets doubled up.

Recover Disappeared Notes on Mac

However, there are ways to recover it, only if you are a bit aware with some rules and a little techie knowledge you possess. Find out how to retrieve your last deleted file (obviously by mistake) on Macbook.

This goes without involving any third party intervention.

Now there is a limit to retrieve your lost file. If it you have taken a month or so that your file has been deleted, then it might get a bit tough to get it back.

1] First, come, if you have deleted any file mistakenly, your immediate action should be to check your “recently deleted” folder. This is one simple way to restore your lost data. But if you think that you can retrieve any deleted data just like this, you’re wrong.

This particular folder empties itself within 30 days. So you have some time before you lose it forever. This is also called ‘emptied trash recovery”.

2] Retrieving deleted notes from I cloud – while you have just bought your Apple device, your Macbook asks you to sync it with your Apple phone.

So here is another great way of retrieving your lost data. All you need to do is to go to your “cloud id”. Sign in with your apple id. Choose notes. Find out your deleted file and save it back.

3] Time machine is next up. This is a built-in back up feature that is available only for mac book users. This automatically (autosaves) saves all your downloaded files – all means all; including music, photos, all other various downloads, apps, etc, etc. Isn’t this a great feature?

So now you know that you are in safe hands and the Time machine is probably your savior. This is a quick and easy solution to recovering your lost data/notes.

4] Mac data recovery program is another feature that helps you get back your lost files. This is easy to use software and is your best choice. Whether you delete your data/file/notes or it gets deleted automatically, you have this as your option.

Recovering Deleted Notes (Mac)

It allows you to recover and restore all the notes that are lost either by deletion or formatting or any virus attacks your disc; Ease US Mac recovery data is the best feature to retrieve your data.

With these options at your fingertips, you possibly can save your files and lost notes. These features are only available with Mac book users and Apple users only.

No third party invention is required in this as these are all available programs/software of Mac itself. There is no way that you could not retrieve your notes now. 
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A Step-By-Step Guide to Building Your First Mobile App

Many reasons exist for building a mobile app but what is outstanding is that an originative idea for a perfect mobile app is what anyone wants before designing and building an app

In order to build a successful and extremely popular mobile app, one that no one has thought of before, the following 10 steps have to be followed, the most important being getting started with the mobile app development process explained below.

Guide to Building Your First Mobile App

Step 1: Have an idea or a problem that should be resolved

Problems are everywhere and that is why they are needed for this first step. A successful app solves problems that are unimaginable after all, every service and product around you came up in order to solve a particular problem. 

A car, for instance, moves people faster from one place to another and a plane moves people faster over greater distances like from one country to another. 

A helpful way is to look around in your daily life and list each problem. Once the list is exhausted, think of a number of solutions for each problem and shortlist the most sensible solutions. 

Step 2: Get to identify the need

Validate the idea by utilizing the Google Keyword Planner tool to find the number of individuals searching out for what you are trying to accomplish. 

Validation is necessary because it eventually demonstrates that there is a demand for the app you want to build. A landing page can be created to widely highlight the app idea and to look out for user interest through email signup.

Step 3: Set out the flow and features 

Having validated the app idea, to show that you have something people need to use, it then calls for putting details of the product onto a document. In order to go further, a wireframing tool should be utilised.

Details are necessary when the idea is put on paper. It calls for noting down every important detail. Considerably, the flow to be undertaken by the user, as well as all the required features, should be included. All these aims at painting a clear picture for the developer to understand your expectations clearly.

Step 4: Eliminate non-core features

After preparing the document with details of the flow and features, closely examine features that can be done away with. The core values of the app idea should stand out. 

It is advisable not to include “nice to have” features in the first version as these can be added afterwards as updates. Why is that important? It is because the initial costs of development will be lower to ensure a quick get-into the market.

Step 5: Place the design first

Instead of coming up with a very basic design, get a developer with user experience and graphics, who will put a very classic design. Many opt for creating a basic design so that they invest more time in developing the app. 

This is not advisable, because the design is not only about how the app looks but more of how the user experience using the app.

Step 6: Get a developer

Look after a design company renowned for its design talent and a reliable development team. To assist with the search, it will be helpful to look at their credibility first and the quality their created apps online. 

From the company’s portfolio, if the apps they created are likeable, good and clear, most probably they are the right one for the product you want to design

Step 7: Establish developer accounts

To be able to sell the app through Google's platform, it is paramount that you register for a developer account with the respective app stores. 

A charge of $25 a year is required by Google's Android while a charge of $99 is required by apple annually. After it has been formed, there is a choice of registering either as an individual or as a company.

Step 8: Integration of analytics

Analytics are important to the app creator for monitoring progress. Tools like Flurry and Localystics are outstanding examples of analytics help in tracking down downloads, retention for the created mobile app and most importantly, the user engagement. Flurry is available for free and a free and paid version of Localytics is readily available.

Step 9: Get quick feedback and improvise.

Dynamism calls for constant changes and enhancements, therefore, monitor user feedback and continue building. 

This is called for after the app goes live on the app store since insight on improving and enhancing the app is given by the customer’s behaviour and their first set of users.

Step 10: Come up with features 

Version one of the built app has the core offering only and limited features. Gradually, this calls for evaluation and introduction of features that were left behind when the initial version of the app was established. How to go through this step will be guided by analytics and feedback. The two will determine if the features are relevant.

In the app development trends, the ten steps listed above are not inviolable instead, from experience; they are just guidelines on how to effectively come up with apps. 

From the details above, it is important to research and discover if other apps are doing the same thing as what is intended to accomplish, to find what inspires the design and details on technical requirements of your app. building an app is the least challenging part. The challenging task is how to get the customers and how to market and monetize the app.
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Comparison Of Clickfunnels Vs Leadpages

Are you tired of constant changes in search engine algorithms that affect your site's rankings? Do you wish to have your hands on an automated tool that will ease your marketing campaigns?

If yes, you're not alone; many marketers as well as business owners are looking for a sure-fire way to get better marketing and sales results. The good news is there are tools such as clickfunnels and leadpages that yield proven results.

Leadpages vs ClickFunnels

However, you should make the right choice between these two tools for your marketing tenure. If you need help and information in this respect, take a look at the below clickfunnels vs leadpages comparison.

Clickfunnels explained

It's a tool for creating killer landing pages, sales funnels and making membership website. The tool also integrates with PayPal, Stripe and other major payment processors. Clickfunnels has its own analytics software for tracking the success of your sales and landing pages.

Additionally, it allows you to conduct A/B testing of web pages, which in turn lets you optimize your pages for most leads as well as sales. Using clickfunnels is fairly simple. This innovative program features an easy to use drag and drop option that can be used by any person.

Clickfunnels moves you ahead of others on account of its multi-functional features. You may also set up an auto-responder and/or manage affiliates with this handy tool. As the software includes a built-in email marketing option, it's easy to synchronize sales pages with email follow up for better results. When you choose clickfunnels, you don't need to worry about hosting.

The program comes with free hosting. All you have to do is choose a custom domain to get going with your marketing campaigns. However, this highly useful tool is high-priced. Consequently, it may not be ideal for novice marketers or small businesses that have limited funds for marketing.

Leadpages explained

It's a simple tool that helps to build landing pages. Leadpages integrates with leading email providers to capture leads in order to nurture those leads. It's simple, takes less time to load and lets you craft highly optimized landing pages that convert into sales.

The best thing is you don't have to be a coding expert to use the software. Leadpages is a cutting-edge solution for generating leads online, via social media platforms, text messages, and emails. Using the drag and drop feature, you can make killer landing pages by dropping elements such as texts, buttons, widgets, and images.

Even an average person can easily get started with this amazing software. This handy marketing tool includes a series of mobile-friendly templates to select from. Leadpages lets you do A/B testing of pages before choosing them. Consequently, the performances of your landing pages improve to a substantial level.

The tool can be integrated with many applications, allowing you to do a lot more than just building landing pages. With leadpages, it's easy to capture leads and send those leads to CRM, email list, webinar platforms or all of the three.

Additionally, you can monitor the performance of your pages with the built-in analytics. Leadpages sends you lead notifications in case you haven't set up an email service. You may also convert your landing pages into multimedia by embedding videos into leadpages.

Most importantly, the tool is modestly priced to suit the budget of all. However, it lacks advanced features required at an advanced stage of marketing.

Closing words

Thriving in this highly competitive online world can be a herculean chore. However, you can ease this chore by choosing top marketing applications such as clickfunnels or leadpages. Check out this clickfunnels vs leadpages comparison in view of your particular marketing needs and choose the right tool to take your venture to new heights.
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The Most Addictive Game Online Ever

Online slots are among the most addicting and thrilling gambling games played by online game lovers. The game of online slots can be effortlessly grasped and when luck favors any player, lots of bonuses are expected by the champion.

Most Addictive Game Online Ever

Photo Credit: Pixabay.com

With the rising population and gambling addiction, slots games have gained much more popularity in the last few decades among online gamblers.


  • The thrill of Caesars anywhere, anytime, on your terms.
  • Regulated, secure and 100% legal online casino gaming with the trustful name in casino gaming and sports wagering.
  • Explore the best real money online casino games, including table games, progressives, slots, and video poker.
  • Easy and trouble-free play, so you can be gaming in few clicks of a button.
  • Play the games you love and pick the rewards.
  • Earn your status and comps to take pleasure at Total Rewards casinos.

Online slots - Stop scrolling for games, Use Special-Filters

That’s right, at casino.com not only have the ultimate in casino slots but also have the most creative features to help you find the titles you enjoy to a great extent.

There is no need to scroll through page after page to select or chase a game that might have the feature or theme you want as online gaming sites include filter option that takes you directly to the titles you wish for.

Whether you are a fan of special free spins, wild symbols, even the branded slots or a spooky theme, we have a filter for all your requirements. Simply click on the filters on the page, apply them and immediately see as the entire slot machine page changes to only include the online games that match your choice and bonus filter selections.

We come up with the most appealing ways to make it simpler to choose the slots and other games you like the most. These filters allow you to find out games that match your bonuses and favorite themes, making it a feature you would never desire to go without again!

Various Types of Slots to Play Online

Online slot games come with plentiful variations and they are trouble-free and simple to understand and play for real money.

Types of Slots to Play Online

Since there isan abundance of online slot games to pick out from, it totally depends on the choice of the player in which he/ she wants to try his luck. Some of the kinds of free online casino slots comprise:

  • 3D Slots.
  • Video Slots.
  • Multiplier Slots.
  • Fruit Machines or Classic Slots.
  • Virtual Reality (VR) Slots.
  • Progressive Slots.
  • Multi-Line Slots.

There’s no denying fact, such online gaming sites simply have the best combination between slot games and pioneering features and they were always finding new ways to make thing simpler and safe for you.

Whether you want to play for fun or take benefits of the best real money slots, they have you covered with all the best features and titles to find them.Casino.com slot machines come with anall-inclusive multiplicity of features.

Select your favorite slot games based on the number of pay lines, maximum and minimum bet, and extra features. The safest method to pay online is to choose reliable sites only.

The best casino sites offer players an extensive choice of payment methods including debit/credit cards, E-wallets and more. They even inspect the different operators to see how fast they process both withdrawals and deposits.
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